Aurdino Programming Commands Reference Guide

Aurdino Programming Commands Reference Guide [Library Functions]

We have seen in detail about what is Aurdino? How to do Aurdino Program? in our previous posts. In this post, let’s see the most important and basic commands/functions that are defined already. 

  1. Digital I/O
  2. Analog I/O
  3. Time
  4. Math
  5. Random
  6. Serial

They are often used in the Aurdino projects. Let us see them one by one in detail:

Digital I/O Commands

digitalRead(pin) :

  • This function reads the value from a digital pin that have the result either HIGH or LOW.
  • This pin can be specified as either a variable or constant. Here constant refers 0-13.


digitalWrite(pin) :

  • Set a digital pin to output mode. Output can be either HIGH or LOW (led pin turns on or off) based on this pin value.
  • The pin is specified as either a variable or constant (0-13).



Analog I/O Commands:


  • This reads the value from an analog pin  with a 10 bit resolution  that is  specified.
  • This function works only on the analog pins (0-5).
  • The resulting integer value ranges from 0 to 1023.


Note: Here analog pins need not to be declared as input or output in the starting of program like digital pins.


  • This code writes a psuedo-analog value using hardware enabled pulse width modulation (PWM) to an output pin marked PWM.
  • This value can be declared as a variable or constant with a value from 0-255.
  • The older versions of Aurdino supports on the pins 9,10,11.
  • But the newer versions supports 3,5,6,9,10 and 11 pins.



Time related commands:

delay(ms) :

    • This code helps to keep the running program in Pause for the time specified in milliseconds.
    • Here note that 1 second = 1000 milliseconds.


millis() :

    • This is the time in milliseconds that the Aurdino board began running the current program as an unsigned long value.


Note: This number gets overflow after approximately 9 hours. i.e., reset back to zero after 9 hours.

Math commands:


  • This function calculates the maximum of two numbers of any data type and returns the small number.



  • This function calculates the minimum of two numbers of any data type and returns the greater number.


Special Commands [Random]:


  • Sets the value or seed as the starting point for the random() function.


Why use randomSeed()?

  • The Aurdino is unable to create a truly random number. 
  • This randomSeed allows you to place a variable, constant or other function into random function.
  • This helps to generate more random numbers. 


  • The random function returns pseudo-random numbers within a range specified in min and max values.


Note: This function should be used only after randomSeed() function.

Serial communication commands:


  • This is a special function that opens up the serial port and sets the baud rate for serial data transmission.

Note: The typical baud rate for communicating with the compute is 9600, even though the other speeds are supported. Also you cannot use both pins 0 and 1 at the same time.

Serial. println(data) :

  • This is same as Serial.print(). But it is easier for reading data on Serial monitor.
  • Prints data to the serial port, followed by an automatic carriage return and line feed. 


These are the basic commands that are used frequently in most of the Aurdino programs.

You may also like to read:

Top  5 Aurdino Projects 
Difference between C and Embedded C
Aurdino LED Binary Counter

Thanks for reading….. Please leave your comments below….

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